Friday, 22 March 2013

MULTIMEDIA : COMMON KNOWLEDGE



Multimedia is media and content that uses a combination of different content forms. This contrasts with media that use only rudimentary computer displays such as text-only or traditional forms of printed or hand-produced material. Multimedia includes a combination of text, audio, still images, animation, video, or interactivity content forms.



Multimedia is usually recorded and played, displayed, or accessed by information content processing devices, such as computerized and electronic devices, but can also be part of a live performance. Multimedia devices are electronic media devices used to store and experience multimedia content. Multimedia is distinguished from mixed media in fine art; by including audio, for example, it has a broader scope. The term "rich media" is synonymous for interactive multimedia. Hypermedia can be considered one particular multimedia application.




The use of computers to present text, graphics, video, animation, and sound in an integrated way. Long touted as the future revolution in computing, multimedia applications were, until the mid-90s, uncommon due to the expensive hardware required. With increases in performance and decreases in price, however, multimedia is now commonplace. Nearly all PCs are capable of displaying video, though the resolution available depends on the power of the computer's video adapter and CPU.

Multimedia can include a range of formats from a simple PowerPoint slide show to a complex interactive simulation (Learning Circuits) and in most cases is believed to enhance user experience and result in easier and faster understanding of the information presented. The concept of presenting information in various formats is not a new phenomenon, however when reviewing this concept in terms of multimedia it generally implies presenting information in various ‘digital’ formats.




According to Dave Marshall 11/5/1999, Multimedia can have a many definitions these include:

Multimedia means that computer information can be represented through audio, video, and animation in addition to traditional media (i.e., text, graphics drawings, images). A good general definition is: Multimedia is the field concerned with the computer-controlled integration of text, graphics, drawings, still and moving images (Video), animation, audio, and any other media where every type of information can be represented, stored, transmitted and processed digitally. A Multimedia Application is an Application which uses a collection of multiple media sources e.g. text, graphics, images, sound/audio, animation and/or video. Hypermedia can be considered as one of the multimedia applications.

Multimedia may be broadly divided into linear and non-linear categories. Linear active content progresses often without any navigational control for the viewer such as a cinema presentation. Non-linear uses interactivity to control progress as with a video game or self-paced computer based training. Hypermedia is an example of non-linear content.

Multimedia presentations can be live or recorded. A recorded presentation may allow interactivity via a navigation system. A live multimedia presentation may allow interactivity via an interaction with the presenter or performer.



Major characteristics of multimedia is:

  • Multimedia presentations may be viewed by person on stage, projected, transmitted, or played locally with a media player. A broadcast may be a live or recorded multimedia presentation. Broadcasts and recordings can be either analog or digital electronic media technology. Digital online multimedia may be downloaded or streamed. Streaming multimedia may be live or on-demand.


  • Multimedia games and simulations may be used in a physical environment with special effects, with multiple users in an online network, or locally with an offline computer, game system, or simulator.



The various formats of technological or digital multimedia may be intended to enhance the users' experience, for example to make it easier and faster to convey information. Or in entertainment or art, to transcend everyday experience.

Enhanced levels of interactivity are made possible by combining multiple forms of media content. Online multimedia is increasingly becoming object-oriented and data-driven, enabling applications with collaborative end-user innovation and personalization on multiple forms of content over time. Examples of these range from multiple forms of content on Web sites like photo galleries with both images (pictures) and title (text) user-updated, to simulations whose co-efficients, events, illustrations, animations or videos are modifiable, allowing the multimedia "experience" to be altered without reprogramming. In addition to seeing and hearing, Haptic technology enables virtual objects to be felt. Emerging technology involving illusions of taste and smell may also enhance the multimedia experience.



References :-

  1. http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/M/multimedia.html
  2. http://www.cs.cf.ac.uk/Dave/MM/OLD_BSC/node10.html
  3. http://searchsoa.techtarget.com/definition/multimedia
  4. http://www.w3schools.com/html/html_media.asp
  5. http://learningtechnology.wikispaces.com/What+is+Multimedia


By Sharifah Nursabrina binti Wan Mahlar (2010381017)

CONNECTING TO THE INTERNET : FREQUENTLY OCCURRED PROBLEMS (F.O.P.)



Connecting to internet is so easy and everything is convenient. But when you suddenly can't connect to the Internet, any of several things could be wrong. You will feels like your face is against the wall and it is so frustrating. Please don’t panic and try to stay calm. Keep yourself together . Use this checklist to find and solve common Internet connection problems :) :-

  • Still in panic mode? Are You Overlooking the Obvious?

Unplugged or loose network cables are easy to miss yet one of the most common reasons you might suddenly find yourself unable to connect to the Internet. That's not a problem on wireless networks, but on most laptops the Wi-Fi radio can be inadvertently shut off instead. On home networks, it's also possible someone unplugged the router. So, the thing you should do is, ensure your wired or wireless network hardware is switched on and plugged in.

  • Feeling momentarily “blank”? Rule Out False Alarms


What may seem to be a network problem connecting to the Internet is sometimes simply a Web site (or whatever server is on the other end of the connection) being temporarily offline. Before assuming your Internet connection is faulty, try visiting several popular Web sites rather than just one.


  • Are You Outside of Wireless Signal Range?


The performance of Wi-Fi network connections depends on distance between the device and the wireless access point. The further away a Wi-Fi device, the slower the local connection generally runs, until it breaks altogether. Wireless signal interference in the area can also limit the effective range of a Wi-Fi connection. Whenever you're unable to reach the access point, you also can't connect to the Internet, obviously. So you can try to use one of these options to measure the strength of your wireless signal and try these ideas to expand the range of your Wi-Fi.

  

  • Avoid I.P. Address Conflicts




In here, it’s getting a little bit “technical”. If your computer and another on the network both have the same IP address, the conflict between them will prevent either from working properly online. To resolve an IP conflict, follow these instructions to release and renew your IP address. If your network uses static IP addresses, manually change your IP to a different number.

  • Software could also cause this problems. Check for Computer Firewall Malfunctions


Firewall software running on most computers is intended to prevent unwanted network traffic from disrupting its operation. Unfortunately, these software firewalls can malfunction and start blocking valid Internet traffic. When two software firewalls, such as Windows Firewall plus a third-party product, are installed on the same computer, contention between the two can also incorrectly block traffic. In order to solve this, If you've recently installed or upgraded software firewalls on your computer, temporarily disable them to determine whether it may be the cause of Internet connection problems.


  • For hardcore user, try to deal with Computer Glitches



Computers, too, suffer from technical glitches. Although relatively uncommon nowadays, a computer's network adapter hardware might suddenly fail due to overheating or age. Failures in the operating system software that control the adapter, on the other hand, can occur frequently especially with computers that are heavily used. Viruses and worms also may disable or block a computer's network interfaces from functioning properly. Finally, if using a laptop or other mobile device, transporting it from one location to another can corrupt the state of its network. It is good to check the computer for malware and remove any found. On Windows computers, try resetting the network connection. Reboot the computer if necessary.

  • Are you sure about your Wi-Fi username and password? Has Your Wireless Network Configuration Changed?


Wi-Fi networks with encryption options like WPA or WEP turned on require computers to use matching security keys when connecting. If someone changes the encryption keys or passphrase on the access point, devices that worked before will suddenly be unable to establish sessions and Internet connections. Likewise (though less likely), if the access point settings are changed to require using a specific Wi-Fi channel number, some computers may be unable to discover it. Before you jump to conclusion, confirm the Wi-Fi channel number and encryption keys on your router have not recently changed (check with the network administrator if necessary). When using a hotspot, follow the provider's instructors for signing on carefully.


  • Check for Broadband Router or Access Point Malfunctions

Home networks that use broadband routers are easier to manage than those without one, but technical glitches with the router can also prevent computers from connecting to the Internet. Router failures are caused by overheating, excessive traffic, or simply an older unit going bad. Typical symptoms of a flaky router include computers on the network not being able to obtain IP addresses, or the router console not responding to requests. Basically, you just need to check the router's lights and console if possible to ensure it is running and responding properly. Troubleshoot and reset the router if necessary.



  • Nothings wrong with your part? Are You Being Blocked By Your Service Provider?


Internet Service Providers (ISPs) can choose to block access from your account if you fail to make payment or otherwise violate the provider's Terms of Service. Especially when using paid hotspots that charge by the hour or day, sometimes people forget to keep their subscription updated. Other common reasons an ISP might block your account include exceeding bandwidth caps, sending spam email, and downloading illegal or inappropriate content. Try to contact your ISP if you suspect your account has been blocked.



  • Last but not least, contact Your Internet Service Provider



Sometimes, for those using satellite Internet service may notice they can't connect to the Internet during periods of very bad weather. Providers in dense urban areas (including cellular Internet carriers) sometimes are unable to support peaks in network traffic that causes sporadic outages for some customers. Finally, those who subscribe to newer or more complex forms of Internet services (such as fixed wireless broadband) may experience more downtime than others as providers encounter more issues with relatively less mature equipment.



That's all for now, if things getting worse, please go get some help from technician or anybody who is qualified to solve the problems. Never let the pressure hold on to the situation or else, the problems will never end.



References :-

Pinola, M. (n.d.). Troubleshooting Wireless Problems - No Internet Connection : What to check when you have a strong wireless signal but still no Internet. Retrieved March 21, 2013, from http://mobileoffice.about.com/od/wifimobileconnectivity/tp/troubleshoot-wireless-problems-no-internet.htm

Jennings, K. (2012). Having Wii U Internet connection problems? Maybe this will help. Retrieved March 21, 2013, from http://www.examiner.com/article/having-wii-u-internet-connection-problems-maybe-this-will-help

Villazon, L. (2011). 15 Common Network Problems and Fixes. Retrieved  March 21, 2013, from http://www.maclife.com/article/features/15_common_network_problems_and_fixes

Lynn, S. (2012). 12 Tips for Troubleshooting Your Internet Connection. Retrieved  March 21, 2013, from http://www.pcmag.com/slideshow/story/262550/12-tips-for-troubleshooting-your-internet-connection

Fagan, M. (2010). 4 Quick Solutions To Windows Network Connection Problems. Retrieved  March 21, 2013, from http://www.makeuseof.com/tag/4-quick-solutions-windows-network-connection-problems/



By Mohd Nurhadi Bin Mohd Kifli (2010913601)

Saturday, 2 March 2013

MULTIMEDIA : Multimedia In Daily Life


What is “Multimedia”?



Multimedia is the use of a computer to present and combine text, sound, images, animations and videos with this tool and connection so that users can interact, write and communicate.

Multimedia is often used in the entertainment world. Apart from the entertainment world, also adopted by the world's Multimedia Game. Multimedia also utilized in the world of education and business. In the world of education, multimedia is used as a medium of instruction, both in the classroom and on their own-self. In the business world, multimedia is used as a media company profile, product profile, even as media training and information kiosks in e-learning system.

Below are few development of multimedia in many fields and areas nowadays.


MULTIMEDIA DEVELOPMENT:-


  • MULTIMEDIA DEVELOPMENT IN THE FIELD OF EDUCATION




In the world of multimedia education very helpful role in facilitating student learning or teacher in delivering and receiving of what is communicated. Before the born of computer, teachers mostly delivering lessons in writing or orally. Now presentation can be done with more interactive way as teaching and learning can be easier because it was supported by various aspects: voice, video, animation, text, and graphics, even online tutorial (e-learning).

  • MULTIMEDIA DEVELOPMENT IN THE FIELD OF ADVERTISEMENT




Advertising will have less attraction in the absence of multimedia. But when adding multimedia, advertisements can be very interesting and will attract a lot of consumers that seen it. Using voice, pictures, video, animation and sophisticated text in the multimedia will add more value to it rather than ordinary advertisement.

  • MULTIMEDIA DEVELOPMENT IN BUSINESS


There are numbers of companies provide officers with training in multimedia-based training materials in the form of simulation.

For example:
• NASA uses multimedia to control flight training for astronaut candidates


  • MULTIMEDIA DEVELOPMENT IN THE FIELD OF ENTERTAINMENT


Entertainment is very important in human life, after weary day's work or man's activity takes entertainment to amuse for their break. Multimedia can be use as a enhancer in entertainment animation and integrated laser show at a music concert. There are many cartoon which are created with multimedia nowadays.

  • MULTIMEDIA DEVELOPMENT IN THE FIELD OF HEALTH



In medical world, multimedia has a very important role to help doctors to determine the disease and to diagnose it. Nowadays, there has been a medical devices to know the state of the art of medicine or detected in the human body condition such as ultrasound, Rontgen or even for blood tension.



  • MULTIMEDIA DEVELOPMENT IN POLITICS

In the era before multimedia, campaign only focus on using oral or written on leaflets or sticker or baleho. Now with the aid of multimedia, action campaigns have spread to the virtual world.

For examples, recent U.S. president use multimedia in his  campaign.




References :-


Reddi V. U. and Mishra, S. (2003). Educational Multimedia: A Handbook for Teacher-Developers. The Commonwealth of learning. Retrieved February 29, 2013, from http://www.cemca.org/emhandbook/educational.htm.

Harrison, J.V. (2003). Enhancing digital advertising using dynamically configurable multimedia : Multimedia and Expo, 2003. ICME '03. Proceedings. 2003 International Conference. United States of America.

Zisman, A. (1995). It has taken a while, but multimedia's benefits for business are becoming clear. Retrieved February 29, 2013, from 

BRUNEI-MUARA (2012). Using multimedia technology to tackle local health issues. The Brunei Times. Retrieved February 29, 2013, from  http://www.bt.com.bn/news-national/2012/12/13/using-multimedia-technology-tackle-local-health-issues

Temmel, M. (n.d.). The Impact Of The Internet On Our Daily Life. Retrieved February 29, 2013, from  http://www.tru.ca/cpj/essay.html.





By Mohd Nurhadi Bin Mohd Kifli (2010913601)

Thursday, 28 February 2013

CONNECTING TO THE INTERNET

While technology changes at a rapid pace, so do Internet connections. The connection speeds listed below is a general snapshot, representing general average to maximum speeds at the time of publication.

As technology grows, so does our need for bigger, better and faster Internet connections. Over the years the way content is presented via the Web has also changed drastically. Ten years ago being able to center, bold, and produce text in different colors on a webpage was something to admire.  Today, Flash, animations, online gaming, streaming HD video, database-driven websites, ecommerce and mobile applications—to name but a few—are standards.

The need for speed has changed the options available to consumers and businesses alike in terms of how and how fast we can connect to the Internet.  The connection speeds listed below represent a snapshot of general average to maximum speeds at the time of publication. This is no doubt will change over time and Internet connection speeds also vary between Internet Service Providers (ISP).

Analog: Dial-up Internet Access




Also called dial-up access, an analog Internet connection is both economical and slow. Using a modem connected to your PC, users connect to the Internet when the computer dials a phone number (which is provided by your ISP) and connects to the network. Dial-up is an analog connection because data is sent over an analog,  public-switched telephone network. The modem converts received analog data to digital and vice versa. Because dial-up access uses normal telephone lines the quality of the connection is not always good and data rates are limited. Typical Dial-up connection speeds range from 2400 bps to 56 Kbps. Today, analog has been widely replaced by broadband (Cable and DSL).

ISDN - Integrated Services Digital Network




Integrated services digital network (ISDN) is an international communications standard for sending voice, video, and data over digital telephone lines or normal telephone wires. Typical ISDN speeds range from 64 Kbps to 128 Kbps.

B-ISDN - Broadband ISDN




Broadband ISDN is similar in function to ISDN but it transfers data over fiber optic telephone lines, not normal telephone wires. SONET is the physical transport backbone of B-ISDN. Broadband ISDN has not been widely implemented.

DSL – Digital Subscriber Line DSL is frequently referred to as an "always on" connection because it uses existing 2-wire copper telephone line connected to the premise so service is delivered simultaneously with wired telephone service --  it will not tie up your phone line as an analog dial-up connection does.  The two main categories of DSL for home subscribers are called ADSL and SDSL.  All types of DSL technologies are collectively referred to as xDSL.  xDSL connection speeds range from 128 Kbps to 9 Mbps.

ADSL - Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line




ADSL is the most commonly deployed types of DSL in North America. Short for asymmetric digital subscriber line ADSL supports data rates of from 1.5 to 9 Mbps when receiving data (known as the downstream rate) and from 16 to 640 Kbps when sending data (known as the upstream rate). ADSL requires a special ADSL modem.

ADSL+2 - ADSL  Extension




An extension to ADSL broadband technology that provides subscribers with significantly faster download speeds when compared to traditional ADSL connections. ADSL+2 works in the same fashion as ADSL a special filter is installed on a subscriber's telephone line to split existing copper telephone lines (POTS) between regular telephone (voice) and ADSL+2. ADSL2+ service is most commonly offered in highly-populated metropolitan areas and subscribers must be in close geographical locations to the provider's central office to receive ADSL2+ service.

SDSL - Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line




Short for symmetric digital subscriber line, SDSL is a technology that allows more data to be sent over existing copper telephone lines (POTS). SDSL supports data rates up to 3 Mbps. SDSL works by sending digital pulses in the high-frequency area of telephone wires and cannot operate simultaneously with voice connections over the same wires. SDSL requires a special SDSL modem. SDSL is called symmetric because it supports the same data rates for upstream and downstream traffic.

VDSL - Very High DSL




Very High DSL (VDSL) is a DSL technology that offers fast data rates over relatively short distances — the shorter the distance, the faster the connection rate.
  

Cable - Broadband Internet Connection




Through the use of a cable modem you can have a broadband Internet connection that is designed to operate over cable TV lines. Cable Internet works by using TV channel space for data transmission, with certain channels used for downstream transmission, and other channels for upstream transmission. Because the coaxial cable used by cable TV provides much greater bandwidth than telephone lines, a cable modem can be used to achieve extremely fast access.  Cable providers typically implement a cap to limit capacity and accommodate more customers. Cable speeds range from 512 Kbps to 20 Mbps.

Wireless Internet Connections




Wireless Internet, or wireless broadband is one of the newest Internet connection types. Instead of using telephone or cable networks for your Internet connection, you use radio frequency bands. Wireless Internet provides an always-on connection which can be accessed from anywhere — as long as you geographically within a network coverage area. Wireless access is still considered to be relatively new, and it may be difficult to find a wireless service provider in some areas. It is typically more expensive and mainly available in metropolitan areas.

Internet over Satellite




Internet over Satellite(IoS) allows a user to access the Internet via a satellite that orbits the earth. A satellite is placed at a static point above the earth's surface, in a fixed position. Because of the enormous distances signals must travel from the earth up to the satellite and back again, IoS is slightly slower than high-speed terrestrial connections over copper or fiber optic cables. Typical Internet over satellite connection speeds (standard IP services) average around 492 up to 512 Kbps.






References :-




  1. http://www.computerhope.com/issues/ch000720.htm
  2. http://compnetworking.about.com/od/internetaccessbestuses/a/how-to-connect-a-computer-to-the-internet.htm
  3. http://digitalunite.com/guides/using-internet-0/connecting-internet/how-connect-internet
  4. http://customer.comcast.com/help-and-support/internet/connecting-to-the-internet-using-your-router/
  5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_Connect


By Sharifah Nursabrina binti Wan Mahlar (2010381017)

Internet

The Internet is a global network connecting millions of computers. More than 100 countries are linked into exchanges of data, news and opinions. According to Internet World Stats, as of December 31, 2011 there was an estimated 2,267,233,742 Internet users worldwide. This represents 32.7% of the world's population.





Unlike online services, which are centrally controlled, the Internet is decentralized by design. Each Internet computer, called a host, is independent. Its operators can choose which Internet services to use and which local services to make available to the global Internet community. Remarkably, this anarchy by design works exceedingly well. There are a variety of ways to access the Internet. Most online services offer access to some Internet services. It is also possible to gain access through a commercial Internet Service Provider (ISP).





Since the mid-1990s, the Internet has had a revolutionary impact on culture and commerce, including the rise of near-instant communication by electronic mail, instant messaging, Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) "phone calls", two-way interactive video calls, and the World Wide Web with its discussion forums, blogs, social networking, and online shopping sites. The research and education community continues to develop and use advanced networks such as NSF's very high speed Backbone Network Service (vBNS), Internet2, and National LambdaRail. Increasing amounts of data are transmitted at higher and higher speeds over fiber optic networks operating at 1-Gbit/s, 10-Gbit/s, or more. The Internet's takeover over the global communication landscape was almost instant in historical terms: it only communicated 1% of the information flowing through two-way telecommunications networks in the year 1993, already 51% by 2000, and more than 97% of the telecommunicated information by 2007. Today the Internet continues to grow, driven by ever greater amounts of online information, commerce, entertainment, and social networking.


References :-




  1. http://www.computerhope.com/issues/ch000720.htm
  2. http://compnetworking.about.com/od/internetaccessbestuses/a/how-to-connect-a-computer-to-the-internet.htm
  3. http://digitalunite.com/guides/using-internet-0/connecting-internet/how-connect-internet
  4. http://customer.comcast.com/help-and-support/internet/connecting-to-the-internet-using-your-router/
  5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_Connect




By Sharifah Nursabrina Binti Wan Mahlar (2010381017)

Monday, 25 February 2013

INTERNET : “Things” you need to know about INTERNET


Things you need to know about INTERNET




The internet went from being something exotic to being boring utility, like mains electricity or running water – and we never really noticed. Imagine what it would be like if, one day, you suddenly found yourself unable to book flights, transfer funds from your bank account, check bus timetables, send email, search Google, call your family using Skype, buy music from Apple or books from Amazon, buy or sell stuff on eBay, watch clips on YouTube or BBC programmes on the iPlayer – or do the 1,001 other things that have become as natural as breathing. The internet has quietly infiltrated our lives, and yet we seem to be remarkably unreflective about it. That's not because we're short of information about the network; on the contrary, we're awash with the stuff. It's just that we don't know what it all means. So we wound up being totally dependent on a system about which we are terminally incurious. In spite of all the answers the internet has given us, its full potential to transform our lives remains the great unknown. Here are the few things you need to understand about the most powerful tool of our age.

  • THE WEB ISN'T THE NET



The most common misconception is that the internet and the web are the same thing. They're not. A good way to understand this is via a railway analogy. Think of the internet as the tracks and signalling, the infrastructure on which everything runs. In a railway network, different kinds of traffic run on the infrastructure — high-speed express trains, slow stopping trains, commuter trains, freight trains and (sometimes) specialist maintenance and repair trains. And there will undoubtedly be other kinds of traffic, stuff we can't possibly have dreamed of yet, running on the internet in 10 years' time.

So the thing to remember is this: the web is huge and very important, but it's just one of the many things that run on the internet. The net is much bigger and far more important than anything that travels on it.


  • THE NETWORK IS NOW THE COMPUTER


For starter, a computer was a standalone PC running Microsoft software. Eventually, these devices were networked locally (via Local Area Network) and then globally (via the internet). But as broadband connections to the net became common place, something strange happened: if you had a fast enough connection to the network, you became less concerned about the precise location of either your stored data or the processor that was performing computational tasks for you. And these tasks became easier to do.


First, the companies (Yahoo, Google, Microsoft) who provided search also began to offer "webmail" – email provided via programs that ran not on your PC but on servers in the internet "cloud". Then Google offered word-processing, spreadsheets, slide-making and other "office"-type services over the network. And so on.



Here was a transition from a world in which the PC really was the computer, to one in which the network is effectively the computer. It has led to the emergence of "cloud computing" – a technology in which we use simple devices (mobile phones, low-power laptops or tablets) to access computing services that are provided by powerful servers somewhere on the net. This switch to computing as a utility rather than a service that you provide with your own equipment has profound implications for privacy, security and economic development – and public perceptions are lagging way behind the pace of development. Everywhere one looks, the transition to cloud computing has profound implications, because it makes us more and more dependent on the net. And yet we're sleepwalking into this brave new world.


  • THE WEB IS CHANGING


Once upon a time, the web was merely a publication medium, in which publishers (professional or amateur) uploaded passive web pages to servers. For many people in the media business, that's still their mental model of the web. 

But in fact, the web has gone through at least three phases of evolution – from the original web 1.0, to the web 2.0 of "small pieces, loosely joined" (social networking, mashups, webmail, and so on) and is now heading towards some kind of web 3.0 – a global platform based on Tim Berners-Lee's idea of the 'semantic web' in which web pages will contain enough metadata about their content to enable software to make informed judgement about their relevance and function. If we are to understand the web as it is, rather than as it once was, we need more realistic mental models of it. Above all, we need to remember that it's no longer just a publication medium.



  • OUR INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY REGIME IS NO LONGER FIT FOR PURPOSE



In the analogue world, copying was difficult and degenerative. In the digital world, copying is effortless and perfect. In fact, copying is to computers as breathing is to living organisms, in as much as all computational operations involve it. When you view a web page, for example, a copy of the page is loaded into the video memory of your computer before the device can display it on the screen. So you can't even look at something on the web without unknowingly, making a copy of it.

Since our current intellectual property regime was conceived in an era when copying was difficult and imperfect, it's not surprising that it seems increasingly out of sync with the networked world. To make matters worse, digital technology has provided internet users with software tools which make it trivially easy to copy, edit, remix and publish anything that is available in digital form – which means nearly everything, nowadays. As a result, millions of people have become "publishers" in the sense that their creations are globally published on platforms such as Blogger, Flickr and YouTube. So everywhere one looks, one finds things that infringe copyright in one way or another.


This is a disagreeable but inescapable fact – as inescapable in its way as the fact that young adults tend to drink too much alcohol. The only way to stop copying is to shut down the net. There's nothing wrong with intellectual property, but our copyright laws are now so laughably out of touch with reality that they are falling into disrepute. They urgently need reforming to make them relevant to digital circumstances. The problem is that none of our legislators seems to understand this, so it won't happen any time soon.

Reference :-


Beal, V. (2011). The Difference Between the Internet and World Wide Web. Webopedia : Everything you need to know is right here. Retrieved February 21, 2013, from http://www.webopedia.com/DidYouKnow/Internet/2002/Web_vs_Internet.asp

Dembo, S. (2005). Would you want a computer without internet? Teach42 : Education and Technology. Retrieved February 21, 2013, from http://www.teach42.com/2005/09/02/would-you-want-a-computer-without-internet

Knorr, E. (n.d.). What cloud computing really means : The next big trend sounds nebulous, but it's not so fuzzy when you view the value proposition from the perspective of IT professionals. InfoWorld. Retrieved February 21, 2013, from http://www.infoworld.com/d/cloud-computing/what-cloud-computing-really-means

Agarwal, A. (2009). Web 3.0 Concepts Explained in Plain English. Digital Inspiration : Tech A La Carte. Retrieved February 21, 2013, from http://www.labnol.org/internet/web-3-concepts-explained

DeGroote , M. (2012). Digital piracy wrong but not 'theft' professor says.  Deseret News. Retrieved February 21, 2013, from http://www.deseretnews.com/article/865553832/Illegal-copying-wrong-but-not-theft-professor-says.html



By : Mohd Nurhadi Bin Mohd Kifli (2010913601)

Tuesday, 1 January 2013

Design, Creativity and Innovation of a Blog



Blogging has become one of the trends in internet world nowadays. As the Internet has become more social, blogs have gained in popularity. Many blogs focus on a particular topic, such as shopping, business. entertainment, social, technology, and many more. But, all of these topics have few things in common which are their blog design, idea creativity and their innovation of concept. Every people have their own idea’s of how to present their thought and what style do they choose to present the idea’s. So now, we are going to talk about design, creativity and innovation of a blog.

Blog’s Design

Designing a blog require a expertise and understanding in the field of webpage. It is a very important task that could  affect the whole interpretation and perception of entire blog. The first thing to be considered when people browsing through a webpage is how does the page look like. So, in this case, blog layout and appearance are considered to be the key to attract people to come and read your blog.

In designing blog, users should design it as user-friendly as possible. While browsing a webpage, people love to have an easiness in accessing. Every information that were displayed should be readable such as the background color match the foreground colors and the font is in good size for all readers. Furthermore, the interactive features must work smoothly as it help users to get easy access in finding content or posts. This require an organize pages where blogger should aware of and all of this are very important so that the page design could enhance the overall experiences of other user’s in browsing their blog. 

Blog’s Creativity



Creativity is the another most crucial ingredient to make a blog look outstanding and special. The information content that have unique and new ideas and could possibly trigger and bring new perspective into the world might be a hot spot and attraction to every internet user.

In order for weblog user to be creative, the must prepare themselves physically and mentally to developed new ideas and thus producing creative ideas. First step is by gathering a lot of varied experiences. This can be achieve by reading a lot of books, travel, talk to strangers, anything to open your mind to new ideas and ways of thinking.



Secondly, by asking a lot of questions, people also could also lead to creative thinking. For example, “Why is this was like that?”, “What would this look out of place?” or “How would think this was brilliant?”. Use imagination to answer the questions. 

Next, write down or draw out the ideas. Do something to make the ideas more realistic rather than just and ordinary intangible thoughts. 


Then, filter the ideas down. Blogger must avoid doing ideas that unreasonable and not realistic. But, just keep them around as we never know when they will inspire something new.



Lastly, blogger need to execute the idea. Now figure out the next step. Even if the idea seems radical, there’s always a way to move forward.

Blog’s Innovative



Becoming innovative in blog will make the user aware of their surrounding, in this case, their “visitors”. They should always do checking and inspection on the blogpage to identify any deficiencies and then perform improvisations so that their blog service could satisfy user’s needs. This measures is accomplished consistently and systematically, so that blog can be well-maintained and the information is accurately preserved. 



Furthermore, in implementing newly improvise ideas or system in weblog, one must remember to filter down the ideas as the the entire blog will depends on it. Not all ideas suitable for the time being and it is a good idea to play it safe by not overdoing things.



Let’s Blog!!

Most people blog about more than one subject, but it's good to choose a general theme for your blog. You don't have to blog about everything. Do what you love and be confident about your choices. Give yourself permission to keep developing, changing your routines and regular refining content until you are completely happy. Let’s start now! 


References :


Harris, R. (2012).  Introduction to Creative Thinking. VirtualSalt. Retrieved December 31, 2012, from http://www.virtualsalt.com/crebook1.htm

Smith And Golsby, T. (2011). Want Innovative Thinking? Hire from the Humanities. HBR Blog Network. Retrieved December 31, 2012, from http://blogs.hbr.org/cs/2011/03/want_innovative_thinking_hire.html

Shread, P. (2012). Don’t Stifle Innovative Thinking : Small Business Tip of the Day. Time : Business and Money. Retrieved December 31, 2012, from http://business.time.com/2012/08/03/dont-stifle-innovative-thinking

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2009). Creativity: Flow and the Psychology of Discovery and Invention. United States of America. HarperCollins Publisher.

Michalko, M. (2006). Thinkertoys: A Handbook of Creative-Thinking Techniques (2nd Edition). New York. Ten Speed Press.




By Mohd Nurhadi bin Mohd Kifli (2010913601) & Sharifah Nursabrina Binti Wan Mahlar (2010381017)